Driving forces and variation in water footprint before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Fujian Province of China
The COVID-19 outbreak has injured the global industrial supply chain, especially China as the world's largest manufacturing base. Since 2020, China has implemented a rigorous lockdown policy, which has sternly damaged sectoral trade in export-oriented coastal areas. Fujian Province, which mainly processes imported materials, has a more profound influence. Although the COVID-19 lockdown has had some detrimental consequences on the world economy, it also had some favorable benefits on the global ecology. Previous studies have shown that the lockdown has altered the physical water quantity and quality, but the lack of total, virtual, and physical water research that combines water quantity and water quality simultaneously to pinpoint the subject and responsibility of water resources consumption and pollution. This research quantified the physical, virtual, and total water consumption and water pollution among 30 sectors in Fujian Province based on the theory of water footprint and the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment model. SDA model was then used to investigate the socioeconomic elements that underpin variations in the water footprint. The results show that after the lockdown, the physical water quantity and the physical grey WF in Fujian Province decreased by 2.6 Gm (−6.7%) and 0.4 Gm (−1.3%) respectively. The virtual water quantity decreased by 2.3 Gm (−4.5%), whereas the virtual grey WF rose by 1.5 Gm (4.3%). The total water quantity dropped by 3.3 Gm (−4.9%), while the grey WF increased by 1.2 Gm (2.5%), i.e. the COVID-19 lockdown decreases physical water quantity and improves local water quality. More than 50% of the water comes from virtual water trade outside the province (virtual water is highly dependent on external), and around 60% of the grey WF comes from physical sewage in the province. The COVID-19 lockdown reduced water outsourcing across the province (paid nonlocally decrease) but increased pollution outsourcing (paid nonlocally increase). And gross capital formation's contribution to the growth in water footprint will continue to rise. As a result, this study suggested that Fujian should take advantage of sectoral trade network to enhance the transaction of green water-intensive intermediate products, reduce the physical water consumption of blue water-intensive sectors, and reduce the external dependence on water consumption. Achieving the shared responsibility of upstream and downstream water consumption and reducing the external dependence on water in water-rich regions is crucial to solving the world's water problems. This research provides empirical evidence for the long-term effects of COVID-19 lockdown on the physical and virtual water environment.
Key Research Funds for Fujian Province Public -interest Scientific Institution in China[2019R1002-7] ; Research Funds for Fujian Province Public -interest Scientific Institution in China[2021R1002007] ; Social Science Foundation of Fujian Province in China[FJ2021B042]
|WOS Research Area|
Science & Technology - Other Topics ; Engineering ; Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Green & Sustainable Science & Technology ; Engineering, Environmental ; Environmental Sciences
|WOS Accession No|
Cited Times [WOS]:0
|Document Type||Journal Article|
|Department||School of Environmental Science and Engineering|
1.Institute of Geography,Fujian Normal University,Fuzhou,350007,China
2.Key Laboratory for Humid Subtropical Eco-geographical Processes of the Ministry of Education,School of Geographical Sciences,Fujian Normal University,Fuzhou,350007,China
3.School of Tourism and Planning,Pingdingshan University,Pingdignshan,Henan Province,467000,China
4.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse,School of the Environment,Nanjing University,Nanjing,210023,China
5.Water & Development Research Group,Department of Built Environment,Aalto University,Espoo,PO Box 15200,00076,Finland
6.School of Environmental Science and Engineering,Southern University of Science and Technology,Shenzhen,518055,China
7.Key Laboratory of Geomatics and Digital Technology of Shandong Province,Shandong University of Science and Technology,Qingdao,266590,China
8.College of Geodesy and Geomatics,Shandong University of Science and Technology,Qingdao,266590,China
9.Department of Environmental Health and Engineering,Johns Hopkins University,Baltimore,3400 North Charles Street,21218,United States
Yu，Fan,Wang，Yuan,Liu，Xin,et al. Driving forces and variation in water footprint before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Fujian Province of China[J]. Journal of Cleaner Production,2023,402.
Yu，Fan.,Wang，Yuan.,Liu，Xin.,Yu，Jinru.,Zhao，Dandan.,...&Chen，Huayang.(2023).Driving forces and variation in water footprint before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Fujian Province of China.Journal of Cleaner Production,402.
Yu，Fan,et al."Driving forces and variation in water footprint before and after the COVID-19 lockdown in Fujian Province of China".Journal of Cleaner Production 402(2023).
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