Laser-induced Two-dimensional Surface Nanopatterning on Film Materials（Invited） 激 光 诱 导 薄 膜 材 料 二 维 图 案 化 纳 米 加 工 技 术（特 邀）
Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Structures （LIPSS） have been extensively studied as grating structures that form beyond the diffraction limit under laser irradiation over a large area. However，most LIPSS are essentially one-dimensional（1D）gratings，and this limited range of structural types in LIPSS hampers their widespread applications. To overcome this challenge，our study proposes a novel maskless two-dimensional（2D）laser nanopatterning method that combines the utilization of laser-induced thermal deformation effects and laser-Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons（SPPs） interference. By harnessing these two effects simultaneously，we can create two distinct periodic structures，namely wrinkles and LIPSS，in orthogonal directions. This innovative approach enables the generation of 2D wrinkled LIPSS on thin-film materials through a single-step laser irradiation process. Moreover，we have made significant advancements in the spatial modulation of the irradiated femtosecond laser，achieving a line shape with a length of 8 mm and a width of 7.78 μm. This spatial modulation facilitates efficient nanopatterning of these 2D LIPSS on a millimeter scale within seconds. These breakthroughs greatly expand the range of achievable structural types with LIPSS，making them more suitable for mass micro/nano fabrication. Our investigation focuses on the formation of wrinkles and LIPSS on GeSbTe （GST） thin-film materials，with an emphasis on laser-induced thermal accumulation，thermal deformation，and laser-SPPs interference. During the laser-induced thermal deformation， wrinkles spontaneously generate with a period of approximately 270 nm on a 50-nm-thick GST film over a silicon substrate. Importantly，these wrinkles maintain their stability in terms of their periods under laser irradiation with varying laser pulse energies. Furthermore，their periods can also be accurately controlled and predicted through a thermal deformation model，which has been validated on GST thin films with different thicknesses and substrate materials. Similarly，another periodic structure，namely LIPSS，can also spontaneously form due to the periodic ablation caused by laser-SPPs interference. The periods of LIPSS，measuring around 410 nm on the same 50-nm-thick GST film， can be modulated by adjusting parameters such as laser wavelength or incident angle. This independent modulation capability allows precise control over the periods of 2D wrinkled LIPSS in both orthogonal directions. Furthermore，we explore the morphological evolution of 2D wrinkled LIPSS and observe a gradual transition from excessive ablation and periodic structure generation to simple crystallization modification as the scanning speed increases or the laser pulse energy decreases. By manipulating the excitation intensity of laser-induced thermal effects and laser-SPPs interference through increasing the laser pulse energy under a fixed scanning speed，we can freely transform the generated periodic structures from wrinkled structures and 2D wrinkled LIPSS to 1D LIPSS. It is worth noting that the height of LIPSS can exceed 65 nm，while the corresponding wrinkle heights typically reach around 34 nm. Additionally，the orientation of 2D wrinkled LIPSS can be controlled by adjusting the polarization angle of the incident laser，adding another parameter to manipulate these structures. Moreover，we have discovered that 2D wrinkled LIPSS formed under different laser polarizations exhibit varying levels of uniformity. Comparatively，LIPSS display superior uniformity when compared to wrinkles，with their orientation being influenced by the polarization angle of the irradiated laser. The laser nanopatterning method proposed in this study demonstrates the immense potential for enhancing the diversity and expanding the applications of LIPSS. It not only overcomes the limitations associated with the monotonous structural type of 1D gratings in LIPSS but also offers a versatile means to engineer and customize the properties of thin-film materials. The increased range of structural possibilities and control over orientations pave the way for a great variety of applications，including surface modification，bionic structural coloration，high-precision detection，photonics，and optoelectronics. The findings presented in this study contribute to advancing laser nanopatterning techniques and provide valuable insights for future research in laser nanofabrication，a rapidly evolving field.
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|Document Type||Journal Article|
|Department||Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering|
Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering,Southern University of Science and Technology,Shenzhen,518055,China
|First Author Affilication||Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering|
|Corresponding Author Affilication||Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering|
|First Author's First Affilication||Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering|
Huang，Jiaxu,Li，Jun,Qiu，Pei,等. Laser-induced Two-dimensional Surface Nanopatterning on Film Materials（Invited） 激 光 诱 导 薄 膜 材 料 二 维 图 案 化 纳 米 加 工 技 术（特 邀）[J]. Guangzi Xuebao/Acta Photonica Sinica,2023,52(7).
Huang，Jiaxu,Li，Jun,Qiu，Pei,&Xu，Shaolin.(2023).Laser-induced Two-dimensional Surface Nanopatterning on Film Materials（Invited） 激 光 诱 导 薄 膜 材 料 二 维 图 案 化 纳 米 加 工 技 术（特 邀）.Guangzi Xuebao/Acta Photonica Sinica,52(7).
Huang，Jiaxu,et al."Laser-induced Two-dimensional Surface Nanopatterning on Film Materials（Invited） 激 光 诱 导 薄 膜 材 料 二 维 图 案 化 纳 米 加 工 技 术（特 邀）".Guangzi Xuebao/Acta Photonica Sinica 52.7(2023).
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